استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل


مُساهمة من طرف حليمة ابو شريعة في 30/09/09, 07:58 pm

Rhazes was born on 28 August 865 CE and died on 6 October 925 CE[9]. His name Razi in Persianmeans from the city of Rayy, an ancient town called Ragha in old Persian and Ragâ in Avestan[10]. It is located on the southern slopes of the Elburz Range situated near Tehran, Iran. In this city (like Ibn Sina) he accomplished most of his work.[11][12]
In his early life he could have been a musician or singer (see Ibn abi Usaibi'ah) but more likely a lute-player who shifted his interest from music to alchemy (cf. ibn Juljul, Sa'id, ibn Khallikan, Usaibi'ah, al-Safadi). At the age of 30 (Safadi says after 40) he stopped his study of alchemy because his experimentation had caused an eye-disease (Cf. al-Biruni), obliging him to search for physicians and medicine to cure it. al-Biruni, Beyhaqi and others, say this was the reason why he began his medical studies.
He studied medicine under Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, known as Ali ibn Rabban al-Tabari or Ali ibn Sahl, (Cf. al-Qifti, Usaibi'ah), a physician and philosopher born in Merv about 192 AH (808 C.E.) (d. approx. 240 AH (855 C.E.)). Ali ibn Sahl belonged to the famous medical school of Tabaristan orHyrcania). This teacher was a Jew who had converted to Islam in conjunction with taking an appointment to the court of the Abbassid caliph Al-Mu'tasim (833-842 C.E.).
Razi became famous in his native city as a physician. He became Director of the hospital of Rayy (Cf.ibn Juljul, al-Qifti, ibn abi Usaibi'ah), during the reign of Mansur ibn Ishaq ibn Ahmad ibn Asad who was Governor of Rayy from 290-296 AH (902-908 C.E.) on behalf of his cousin Ahmad ibn Isma'il ibn Ahmad, second Samanian ruler. Razi dedicated his al-Tibb al-'Mansurito Mansur ibn Ishaq ibn Ahmad, which was verified in a handwritten manuscript of his book. This was refuted by ibn al-Nadim', but al-Qifti and ibn abi Usaibi'ah confirmed that the named Mansur was indeed Mansur ibn Isma'il who died in 365 AH (975 C.E.). Razi moved from Rayy to Baghdad during Caliph Muktafi's reign (approx. 289-295 AH (901-907 C.E.)) where he again held a position as Chief Director of a hospital.
After al-Muktafi's death in 295 AH (907 C.E.) Razi allegedly returned to Rayy where he gathered many students around him. As Ibn al-Nadimrelates in Fihrist, Razi was then a Shaikh (title given to one entitled to teach), surrounded by several circles of students. When someone arrived with a scientific question, this question was passed on to students of the 'first circle'. if they did not know the answer, it was passed on to those of the 'second circle'... and so on and on, until at last, when all others had failed to supply an answer, it came to Razi himself. We know of at least one of these students who became a physician. Razi was a very generous man, with a humane behavior towards his patients, and acting charitable to the poor. He used to give them full treatment without charging any fee, nor demanding any other payment.[citation needed]
Some say the cause of his blindness was that he used to eat too many broad beans (baqilah). His eye affliction started with cataracts and ended in total blindness. The rumor goes that he refused to be treated for cataract, declaring that he "had seen so much of the world that he was tired of it." However, this seems to be an anecdote more than a historical fact. One of his pupils from Tabaristan came to look after him, but, according to al-Biruni, he refused to be treated proclaiming it was useless as his hour of death was approaching. Some days later he died in Rayy, on the 5th of Sha'ban 313 AH (27th of October, 925 C.E.).
[edit]Razi's masters and opponents

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2007)

This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may contain suggestions. (May 2009)

This article may contain wording that promotes the subject subjectively without imparting verifiable information. Please remove or replace such wording, unless you can citeindependent sources that support the characterization.

This article contains weasel words, vague phrasing that often accompanies biased orunverifiable information. Such statements should be clarified or removed. (February 2009)

Razi studied medicine under Ali ibn Rabban al-Tabari, however, Ibn al-Nadim indicates that he studied philosophy under al-Balkhi, who had travelled much and possessed great knowledge of philosophy and ancient sciences. Some even say that Razi attributed some of al-Balkhi's books on philosophy to himself. We know nothing about this man called al-Balkhi, not even his full name.[13][14]
Razi's opponents, on the contrary, are well-known. They are the following:
1. Abu al-Qasim al-Balki, chief of the Mu'tazilah of Baghdad (d. 319 AH/931 CE), a contemporary of Razi who wrote many refutations about Razi's books, especially in his Ilm al-Ilahi. His disagreements with Razi entailed his thoughts on the concept of 'Time'.
2. Shuhaid ibn al-Husain al-Balkhi, with whom Razi had many controversies; one of these was on the concept of 'Pleasure', expounded in hisTafdll Ladhdhat al-Nafs which abu Sulaiman al-Mantiqi al-Sijistani quotes in his work Siwan al-Hikmah. Al-Balkhi died prior to 329 AH/940 CE.
3. Abu Hatim al-Razi (Ahmad ibn Hamdan). an Isma'ili missionary, was one of his most influential opponents (d. 322 AH/933-934 CE). He published his controversies with Razi in his book A'lam al-Nubuwwah. Because of this book, Razi's thoughts on Prophets and Religion are preserved to the present time.
4. Ibn al-Tammar (seemingly being abu Bakr Husain al-Tammar, according to Kraus) was a physician who had some disputes with Razi, as documented by Abu Hatim al-Razi in A'lam al-Nubuwwah. Ibn al-Tammar disagreed with Razi's book al-Tibb al-Ruhani but Razi rebutted him in two antitheses:
(a) First refutation of al-Tammar's disagreement with Misma'i concerning 'Matter'.
(b) Second refutation of al-Tammar's opinion of 'the Atmosphere of subterranean habitations'.
5.Following are authors as described by al-Razi in his writings:
(a) al-Misma'i, a Mutakallim, who opposed 'materialists', counteracted byan al-Razi's treatise.
(b) Jarir, a physician who had a theory about 'The eating of black mulberries after consuming water-melon'.
(c) al-Hasan ibn Mubarik al-Ummi, to whom al-Razi wrote two epistles with commentaries.
(d) al-Kayyal, a Mutakallim: al-Razi wrote a book on about his Theory of the Imam.
(e) Mansur ibn Talhah, being the author of the book "Being", which was criticized by al-Razi.
(f) Muhammad ibn al-Laith al-Rasa'ili whose opposition against alchemists was disputed by al-Razi.
6. Ahmad ibn al-Tayyib al-Sarakhasi (d. 286 AH/899 CE), was an older contemporary of al-Razi. Al-Razi disagreed with him on the question of 'bitter taste'. He moreover opposed his teacher Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi, regarding his writings, in which he discredited alchemists.

 More names could be added to this list of all people opposed by al-Razi, specifically the Mu'tazilah and different Mutakallimin.
[edit]Contributions to medicine
[edit]Smallpox vs. measles

Razi, treating a patient.
As chief physician of the Baghdad hospital, Razi formulated the first known description ofsmallpox:
"Smallpox appears when blood 'boils' and is infected, resulting in vapours being expelled. Thus juvenile blood (which looks like wet extracts appearing on the skin) is being transformed into richer blood, having the color of mature wine. At this stage, smallpox shows up essentially as 'bubbles found in wine' - (as blisters) - ... this disease can also occur at other times - (meaning: not only during childhood) -. The best thing to do during this first stage is to keep away from it, otherwise this disease might turn into anepidemic."
This diagnosis is acknowledged by the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1911), which states: "The most trustworthy statements as to the early existence of the disease are found in an account by the 9th-century Persian physician Rhazes, by whom its symptoms were clearly described, its pathology explained by a humoral or fermentation theory, and directions given for its treatment."
Razi's book: al-Judari wa al-Hasbah (On Smallpox and Measles) was the first book describing smallpox and measles as distinct diseases. It was translated more than a dozen times into Latin and other European languages. Its lack of dogmatism and its Hippocratic reliance on clinical observation show Razi's medical methods. For example:
"The eruption of smallpox is preceded by a continued fever, pain in the back, itching in the nose and nightmares during sleep. These are the more acute symptoms of its approach together with a noticeable pain in the back accompanied by fever and an itching felt by the patient all over his body. A swelling of the face appears, which comes and goes, and one notices an overall inflammatory color noticeable as a strong redness on both cheeks and around both eyes. One experiences a heaviness of the whole body and great restlessness, which expresses itself as a lot of stretching and yawning. There is a pain in the throat and chest and one finds it difficult to breath and cough. Additional symtomps are: dryness of breath, thick spittle, hoarseness of the voice, pain and heaviness of the head, restlessness, nausea and anxiety. (Note the difference: restlessness, nausea and anxiety occur more frequently with 'measles' than with smallpox. At the other hand, pain in the back is more apparent with smallpox than with measles). Altogether one experiences heat over the whole body, one has an inflamed colon and one shows an overall shining redness, with a very pronounced redness of the gums."
[edit]Allergies and fever

Al-Razi's Recueil des traités de médecine translated by Gerard of Cremona, second half of 13th century.
Razi is also known for having discovered "allergic asthma," and was the first physician ever to write articles on allergy and immunology. In the Sense of Smelling he explains the occurrence of 'rhinitis' after smelling a rose during the Spring: Article on the Reason Why Abou Zayd Balkhi Suffers from Rhinitis When Smelling Roses in Spring. In this article he discusses seasonal 'rhinitis', which is the same as allergic asthma or hay fever. Razi was the first to realize that fever is a natural defense mechanism, the body's way of fighting disease.
Rhazes contributed in many ways to the early practice of pharmacy by compiling texts, in which he introduces the use of 'mercurial ointments' and his development of apparatus such as mortars, flasks, spatulas and phials, which were used in pharmacies until the early twentieth century.
[edit]Ethics of medicine
On a professional level, Razi introduced many practical, progressive, medical and psychological ideas. He attacked charlatans and fake doctors who roamed the cities and countryside selling their nostrums and 'cures'. At the same time, he warned that even highly educated doctors did not have the answers to all medical problems and could not cure all sicknesses or heal every disease, which was humanly speaking impossible. To become more useful in their services and truer to their calling, Razi advised practitioners to keep up with advanced knowledge by continually studying medical books and exposing themselves to new information. He made a distinction between curable and incurable diseases. Pertaining to the latter, he commented that in the case of advanced cases of cancer and leprosy the physician should not be blamed when he could not cure them. To add a humorous note, Razi felt great pity for physicians who took care for the well being ofprinces, nobility, and women, because they did not obey the doctor's orders to restrict their diet or get medical treatment, thus making it most difficult being their physician.
He also wrote the following on medical ethics:
"The doctor's aim is to do good, even to our enemies, so much more to our friends, and my profession forbids us to do harm to our kindred, as it is instituted for the benefit and welfare of the human race, and God imposed on physicians the oath not to compose mortiferous remedies."[15]
[edit]Books and articles on medicine
 The Virtuous Life (al-Hawi Arabic الحاوي).
This monumental medical encyclopedia in nine volumes — known in Europe also as The Large Comprehensive or Continens Liber(Arabic جامع الكبير) — contains considerations and criticism on the Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato, and expresses innovative views on many subjects. Because of this book alone, many scholars consider Razi the greatest medical doctor of the Middle Ages.
The al-Hawi is not a formal medical encyclopedia, but a posthumous compilation of Razi's working notebooks, which included knowledge gathered from other books as well as original observations on diseases and therapies, based on his own clinical experience. It is significant since it contains a celebrated monograph on smallpox, the earliest one known. It was translated into Latin in 1279 by Faraj ben Salim, a physician of Sicilian-Jewish origin employed by Charles of Anjou, and after which it had a considerable influence in Europe.
The al-Hawi also criticized the views of Galen, after Razi had observed many clinical cases which did not follow Galen's descriptions of fevers. For example, he stated that Galen's descriptions of urinary ailments were inaccurate as he had only seen three cases, while Razi had studied hundreds of such cases in Muslim hospitals of Baghdad and Rayy.[16]
 A medical adviser for the general public (Man la Yahduruhu Al-Tabib) (Arabic من لا يحضره الطبيب)
Razi was possibly the first Persian doctor to deliberately write a home Medical Manual (remedial) directed at the general public. He dedicated it to the poor, the traveler, and the ordinary citizen who could consult it for treatment of common ailments when a doctor was not available. This book, of course, is of special interest to the history of pharmacy since similar books were very popular until the 20th century. Razi described in its 36 chapters, diets and drug components that can be found in either an apothecary, a market place, in well-equipped kitchens, or and in military camps. Thus, every intelligent person could follow its instructions and prepare the proper recipes with good results.
Some of the illnesses treated were headaches, colds, coughing, melancholy and diseases of the eye, ear, and stomach. For example, he prescribed for a feverish headache: " 2 parts of duhn (oily extract) of rose, to be mixed with 1 part of vinegar, in which a piece of linen cloth is dipped and compressed on the forehead". He recommended as a laxative, " 7 drams of dried violet flowers with 20 pears, macerated and well mixed, then strained. Add to this filtrate, 20 drams of sugar for a drink. In cases of melancholy, he invariably recommended prescriptions, which included either poppies or its juice (opium), clover dodder (Cuscuta epithymum) or both. For an eye-remedy, he advised myrrh, saffron, and frankincense, 2 drams each, to be mixed with 1 dram of yellow arsenicformed into tablets. Each tablet was to be dissolved in a sufficient quantity of coriander water and used as eye drops.
 Doubts About Galen (Shukuk 'ala alinusor)
Razi's independent mind is revealed in this book and G. Stolyarov II quotes:
"In the manner of numerous Greek thinkers, including Socrates and Aristotle, Razi rejected the mind-body dichotomy and pioneered the concept of mental health and self-esteem as being essential to a patient's welfare. This "sound mind, healthy body" connection prompted him to frequently communicate with his patients on a friendly level, encouraging them to heed his advice as a path to their recovery and bolstering their fortitude and determination to resist the illness and resulting in a speedy convalescence."
In his book Doubts about Galen, Razi rejects several claims made by the Greek physician, as far as the alleged superiority of theGreek language and many of his cosmological and medical views. He links medicine with philosophy, and states that sound practice demands independent thinking. He reports that Galen's descriptions do not agree with his own clinical observations regarding the run of a fever. And in some cases he finds that his clinical experience exceeds Galen's.
He criticized moreover Galen's theory that the body possessed four separate "humors" (liquid substances), whose balance are the key to health and a natural body-temperature. A sure way to upset such a system was to insert a liquid with a different temperature into the body resulting in an increase or decrease of bodily heat, which resembled the temperature of that particular fluid. Razi noted that a warm drink would heat up the body to a degree much higher than its own natural temperature. Thus the drink would trigger a response from the body, rather than transferring only its own warmth or coldness to it. (Cf. I. E. Goodman)
This line of criticism essentially had the potentiality to destroy completely Galen's Theory of Humours including Aristotle's theory of the Four Elements, on which it was grounded. Razi's own alchemical experiments suggested other qualities of matter, such as "oiliness" and "sulphurousness", or inflammability and salinity, which were not readily explained by the traditional fire, water, earth, and air division of elements.
Razi's challenge to the current fundamentals of medical theory were quite controversial. Many accused him of ignorance and arrogance, even though he repeatedly expressed his praise and gratitude to Galen for his commendable contributions and labors. saying:
"I prayed to God to direct and lead me to the truth in writing this book. It grieves me to oppose and criticize the man Galen from whose sea of knowledge I have drawn much. Indeed, he is the Master and I am the disciple. Although this reverence and appreciation will and should not prevent me from doubting, as I did, what is erroneous in his theories. I imagine and feel deeply in my heart that Galen has chosen me to undertake this task, and if he were alive, he would have congratulated me on what I am doing. I say this because Galen's aim was to seek and find the truth and bring light out of darkness. I wish indeed he were alive to read what I have published."
1. Crystallization of ancient knowledge, and the refusal to accept the fact that new data and ideas indicate that present day knowledge ultimately might surpass that of previous generations.
Razi believed that contemporary scientists and scholars are by far better equipped, more knowledgeable, and more competent than the ancient ones, due to the accumulated knowledge at their disposal. Razi's attempt to overthrow blind acceptance of the unchallenged authority of ancient Sages, encouraged and stimulated research and advances in the arts, technology, and sciences.
 The Diseases of Children
Al-Razi is considered the father of pediatrics for writing The Diseases of Children, the first book to deal with pediatrics as an independent field of medicine.[7]

حليمة ابو شريعة
طالباً شجاع
طالباً شجاع

عدد الرسائل : 60
العمر : 21
المزاج : mn ela5er
تاريخ التسجيل : 27/09/2009

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:
لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى